Northern Norway is rich in its diversity of flora (plants) and fauna (animals). The primary flora found in Norway are heather, mountain birch, dwarf birch, and shrub willow. Fir, spruce, and pine trees are also abundant. Notably, only 27 percent of Norway is covered by forest. Taiga, or boreal forest, is found inland and in northern Norway. Arctic tundra can be found in Finnmark, in the far north of Norway. Tundra consists of treeless plains that are frozen for much of the year.
One of most common animals in northern Norway is the elk. In fact, elk (or, as we call them in the United States, “moose”) are so populous that there are signs along most roads warning drivers to be on the lookout for them. Other common fauna include roe deer, red deer, foxes, hares, reindeer, badgers, wolverines, lynx, wolves, owls, hawks, mice, squirrels, gulls, and ducks. Reindeer are a domesticated animal in northern Norway, and reindeer husbandry is legally protected as an exclusive Sami livelihood.
There are a multitude of seabirds and fish varieties found in the north. The Lofoten Islands have the largest population of sea eagles in the world and are home to some of the largest seabird colonies in Europe. Norway’s puffin population makes up about 30% of the world’s overall puffin population, though it has declined by two-thirds over the past 30 years.
The Fishing in Norway website discusses the many varieties of fish found in Norway. Another website, Birding Norway, provides a information about birds, including where different species can be found and more. Norway is home to a recorded 473 bird species, and more than 200 different species of fish and shellfish inhabit the sea surrounding Norway. Cod are the most popular fish found in the waters in northern Norway, but halibut, monkfish, mackerel, saithe, haddock, pollack, and ling are found there as well.
A variety of whales can be found in the coastal sea and fjords, including minke, fin, pilot, beluga, and orca (killer) whales. Populations of seals and walruses are also found in the Norwegian Sea.
The seagulls lay their eggs in nests right on the ground, but they can still be hard to spot since they are camouflaged to look like rocks. Picking the eggs can actually be considered a favour to the seagulls, since they will mate again if their eggs are lost. . . . It’s customary, however, to leave one egg behind in each nest when you harvest them.” Text and image from My Little Norway